Uncle Stephen Rawlings
Images relevant to Moses Rawlings
Inhabitants of the South River
Other Maryland Rawlings
George Fox in Scotland
Md. Quaker Names elsewhere
Links for Time-travellers
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Moses R. Hurst
South River Quaker names that turn up elsewhere
Thomas [Spencer] was disenfranchised for entertaining Quakers in 1659 (LND, 652). Evidence that Thomas and Patience may have been Quakers is seen in the courts 7 July 1663 when they were presented for "neglecting to come to the publique meeteing on the Lords day to heare the word preached for about the space of 3 Moenths" (MPC II:139). They were presented again for the same offense on 6 July 1675 (ibid, II:306). In a long list of "those persons yt entertayned the Quakers, with the answers given in by them respectively" we find: "That Thomas Spencer pay as a fine to ye country for his entertayning the Quakers the somme of five pounds, & be disfranchised" (The Records of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, Vol 4, part 1, p 407). Edward Wharton piloted a vessel that carried a group of Quakers up the coast, and seven people were fined varying sums and/or disenfranchised...by the Massachusetts Bay government, the only entity which could disenfranchise a freeman. Thomas Spencer obviously answered their questions in sympathy with the Quakers, defied the government, and was cast out as a result. Because we don't have copies of his answers to the Court's questions, we don't know how steadfastly he supported the Quakers, but he clearly satisfied the Court that he was in sympathy with them or they would not have taken action against him. They did not take action against James Rawlings, for instance, whom they found to be "more innocent and ingenious then the rest." [ref:http://develop.nmdg.com/virtualhosts/communities/chadbourne/2ndgen.html] "1659. 12 NovemberThe Court, hauing considered of the seuerall offences of those persons ye entertayned the Quakers,wth the answers giuen in by them respectiuely, doe order that James Rawlings, being more innocent & ingenious than the rest, be only admonished by the honnoed Gouenor, wch was donne."[ref:http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~barbpretz/ps03/ps03_235.html]
James Rawlings of Virginia & Maryland
The first James Rawlings (born Bef. 1697 in England, and died Bet. April 09 - June 09, 1757 in Spotsylvania Co., VA.) had established a foundry business in Virginia, which was continued by his son, James Rawlings, (born 1715 , died December 03, 1784 in Spotsylvania Co. m. Sarah, dau. of Elizabeth Rawlings and John Holladay) and which had a Montgomery County, Md. location, managed by James Rawlings III, i.e. James H. Rawlings. (b. Feb. 23, 1742, Spotsylvania Co., VA; d. 1804 in Mongomery Co., MD,)[Ref: http://www.geocities.com/Colosseum/Park/2693/james17151784.html Descendants of James Rawlings] :
Notes for JAMES RAWLINGS: [born Bef. 1697 in England, and died Bet. April 09 - June 09, 1757 in Spotsylvania Co., VA.] : See RFHA Dec 1989 p 5. Indicates that it is believed this James (d 1757) came first to Maryland from England pre-1700, settling first in Prince George's Co, then moving to King William County, VA pre 1720. Both Caroline and Spotsylvania counties in VA were formed in 1720 from Essex, King and Queen, and King William Cos. Of this James, the genealogist poses a question: Did he have a brother or nephew Richard that md Katherine Rice in Spotsylvania Apr 11, 1746? This geneologist also cites: RFHA Mar 1989, p.14. There was a James Rawlins who came from England to VA c1680 according to Filby's Passenger List bibliography. Also on pg 16: from English Convicts in Colonial America Vol. 1. 1617-1775 by Coldham. James Rawlings, pleaded to transport, July 1680. This James was hired by a Maryland company to build an iron foundry. He bought land in what was then Caroline Co but is now Spotsylvania County where he built his home. He died in 15.
Will of James I: Rawlings/Rallings, James: Date of Will: 1757; Will Book B, 1749-1761 (Reel 26); p. 314-15 Will pro. 7 June 1757. p. 315-316. Excrs bond rec. 7 June 1757; p.319-321. Inv. & appr. rec. 5 July 1757. Part of index to Spotsylvania County Wills and Administrations (1722-1800) Va. Wills and Administrations. Wills aat.
James Rawlings II:
Will of Rawlings, James: 1785. Will Book E. 1772-1778 (Reel 28). p. 661-662. Will dated 15 Nov. 1781. p. 663. Exors. bond rec. 5 Apr. 1785. p. 667: Inv. & appr. dated 16 April 1785. p. 1128. Accounts rec. 1 Dec. 1791. Part of index to Spotsylvania County Wills and Administrations (1722-1800) Spotsylvania County (Va). Wills aat. Virginia Wills and Administrations. .RFHA Dec 1989, p5. "His will names 8 children: Benjamin, Thomas, Joseph [Joseph Rawlings of Spotsylvania Co. to his brother Benjamin Rawlings same Co being an undivided moiety between the said Josph and the said Benjamin (who holds the other moieaty under the will of his brother Thomas, unto whom it was devised by his father, James Rawlings. Wit: Michael McDonald, James Holladay, Wm. Tally and George Cason. June 7, 1791Note reference to Wm TALLY.], James, John, Mary Gains, Agnes Gains, and Rebecca.] carried on his father's iron foundry business in Spotsylvania Co., VA, and James H., the oldest of his children, was sent to Montgomery Co., MD. to build and manage another foundry. John Holladay Rawlings, another son of James II, emigrated to Clark County, Ky, and his son, James Dawson Rawlings was the father of Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of War, John Aaron Rawlings.
”The James Rawlings d. 1785 was the father of:
James H. Rawlings (III)
4. JAMES H.3 RAWLINGS (JAMES2, JAMES1)James H. Rawlins, b. Feb. 23, 1742, Spotsylvania Co., VA; d. 1804 in Mongomery Co., MD, in 1804. He married Mary Crow, dtr. of James and Mary (Farmer) Crow of Maryland. James H. Rawlins had the following children: James H. IV, b. ca 1779 in Md. died post-1804. Md Sally Ann __; Richard, b. c1781 in MD; d. 1862 in Orange Co., VA. m. Lucy Scott Herndon Apr 17, 1807, in Orange Co., VA.; Benjamin, b c 1783 in Md., m. Ann __ in Baltimore, Md, and had no children, he died post 1864; Sarah (Sally) m. Henry Howard in 1806; John Holladay, b 1785 in MD.,m. Mildred Trigere Apr 2, 1809 he is not found in his father's will; Mary (Polly) m. Edward Berry Feb 1802RFHA June 1996 p.20.:James Rawlings, Will BK E, p. 116, will written Apr. 10, 1804, will proved June 16, 1804. Left land in Spotsylvania Co., VA, to children Sarah, Mary, James H., Benjamin and Richard. Also land which had come to him from his wife. Also to brother Benjamin, and to granddaughter, child of dtr. Mary and her husband Edward Berry. Exec: sons James H., Benjamin and Richard
The Snowden Legacy: The Snowdens Patuxent Furnace1 , located on the LIttle Patuxent River, Anne Arundel County (near the present-day Tipton Airfield, Fort George G. Meade) was another important Iron Production center. It ran for over a hundred years, from at least 1734 (though possibly much earlier) until 1856. The Snowden family, probably descended from that Richard Snowden who had been transported to Maryland in 1658, operated the furnace until 1831, seling it to Evan T. Elicott who rebuilt it. The unpublished business ledgers of the Snowdens, located at the Maryland Hall of Records in Annapolis, coverted the period 1767-1801, and minutely describe the operation: the people, methods, production, transportation routes. We read in those jounrals, for example, that most of the workers at the furnace and nearby forge were African - Americans, slave and free; we learn that much of the pig iron produced at the furnace was hauled overland to Indian Landing, at the head of the Severn River, for shipment to England and to other points in Maryland. The Snowden complex on the Patuxent included not only furnace and forge, but also gristmill, warehouse and store where local people could purchase hardware of course, but also flour , seed, clothing , rum and brandy. And to rescue some long-ago names from the tattered apges of the jouirnals: Negro Forge Harry and his wife Nann worked at the furnace for more that 30 years; William Holmes was a bookkeeper: James Rawlings a master ironworker, Samuel Davis repaired the walls of the furnace in December 1768, but unfortunately finding himself in rum... -the rest of that entry is obliterated. .... [ref:Appendix B: Additional Note by Robert Louis Benson on the Maryland Iron Industry and the rewards of Mine searching: The Snowden Legacy. From Notes on the Sedimentary Iron Ores of Maryland and their Dinosaurian Fauna by Peter M. Kranz]
James Rawlings of Spotsyvania
WPA Records: Cemetaries: Sunning Hill- 10 miles northeast of Louisa, Va. From Louisa go 6 miles north on Rt. #628, thence 17/10 miles east on Rt. #613 to Dickinsons Store thence 3 miles west to house. graves: * Virginia Watson Rawlings, Youngest daughter of the late Dr. James Minor, of Louisa, and wife of James Rawlings of Spotyslvania; born 25th of August 1822; Married in 1843; closed her radiant life May 10, 1847; her husband and two sons survive. * Here lies the remains of John Z. Holiday, born in Spotsylvnia Co., Dec. 12th, 1806, married to Julia Ann Minor, May 19th, 1838, died Oct. 12th, 1842. [ref:http://trevilians.com/wpabible.htm]
406. Refs for Holladay: Holladay family papers, 1728-1931. 2,318 items. Mss1H7185a. Microfilm reels C338-C343.This collection contains a variety of general records pertaining to slaves and freedmen affiliated with the Holladay family of Spotsylvania County. Among the earliest records is a tax assessor's book kept by Waller Holladay for Spotsylvania in 1798 (section 88). It records names of slaveowners and the number of taxable slaves by age groups from twelve to fifty. Section 94 contains lists of slaves and hiring records; a list of births begins with 1793 and continues to 1860; deeds and hiring records pertain to the years 1807 to 1818. Section 63 also contains birth lists beginning with 1762 for slaves owned by Lewis Holladay at Bellefonte. Dates and mothers' names are recorded for approximately fifty-five slaves.... In section 104 is an 1843 affidavit stating the number of slaves (by age group) of Julia Ann Minor Holladay in Louisa County for tithable records.As a justice of the peace, Lewis Holladay kept copies of legal records. Some of these concern legal action against slaves (section 58), including Major, property of Edward Hyde, for the murder of Ralph, property of David Sandidge (see entry below for more on this case). Other records pertain to slaves involved in estate divisions that were settled in chancery and appellate courts (section 95). An 1816 affidavit of Hugh Corran Boggs concerns Benjamin Carter and George Boxley hiring Aggy for 1816.A slave insurrection implicating George Boxley is the subject of material in section 72 (see also Mss1H7185b, section 237), in particular a letter by Wilson Cary Nicholas to Waller Holladay. Boxley's plan for an insurrection is detailed by the examination of slaves' testimony; lists of slaves implicated are also included. Also in section 72 is a letter of Robert Powell in which he discusses the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829-1830, the chances of abolishing slavery, the possibility of restricting slaves' access to northern abolitionist publications, the need for more police, and government-subsidized African colonization.Sections 126 to 129 consist of account books, 1866-1875, that record accounts with freedmen as farm laborers, noting days worked, days lost for attendence at political meetings, holidays, summaries of labor contracts, and shoes. ... Holladay family papers, 1753-1961. 12,728 items. Mss1H7185b. Microfilm reels C343-C357.Additional papers of the Holladay family include a number of basic slave records, such as deeds and lists. In section 1 is a 1789 deed of Benjamin Holladay that includes Jean, Nelly, and Anthony, among other property. Section 51 contains lists of tithables, 1860, and an 1854 register of births going back to 1796 and notes of which slaves are assigned to the mill. Section 166 contains notes, 1847-1885, of James Minor Holladay of slave births, those removed to Texas, and assignments of weekly chores and routines.... In section 241 is an 1812 hiring bond, a 1785 estate list of James Rawlings, and a permission slip for the slave George to dispose of twelve pounds of seed cotton.A 1774 deed of trust that was not promptly recorded was the subject of a dispute that lasted several years in court. The deed of Elizabeth Lewis (Littlepage) Holladay to John Lewis concerned property that included the slaves Sylvia, Jenny, Delphy, Daphney, Phoebe, and Phyllis. The details of the case appear in the contents of sections 18 to 22. A copy of the deed of trust is in section 27. Sections 16 and 17 contain other legal material pertaining to slaves, in particular charges of theft, receipt of stolen goods, arson, and a 1799 report describing the murder of the slave Ralph by another slave, Major.Section 237 contains May 1816 letters of Stapleton Crutchfield concerning George Boxley's escape from jail. (Boxley was implicated in the April 1816 uprising of slaves in Spotsylvania and surrounding counties. See also Mss1H7185a, section 72.) In the same section Henry Tatterson writes to Amy, 1845, about his attempts to buy her from her master, Mr. Holladay. Tatterson also reassures Amy of his love and reminds Jack to help care for Tatterson's son. Notes of Waller Holladay (folder 7 of section 57), dated 1858, state that an inspection of various parts of the slave cabins is sufficient but inspections of the blankets are unnecessary; treatment of slaves should not be harsh, nor should they be made to work in rain or plow wet soil; some need extra time to get to work, because of age or distance. In section 114 is J. M. Holladay's 1857 correspondence with Dr. J. W. Minor of Albemarle County that relates news from the colony in Liberia, in particular the names of mutual acquaintances who have died. Section 30 includes Waller Holladay's correspondence with Dr. George Dillard, enclosing medical fees for the slaves Julius and Lucy (1859-1860).In September 1864, J. M. Holladay requested information concerning the sale price of certain slaves from Hill, Dickinson & Co. of Richmond (section 114). The response was that the slaves were unsellable on the Richmond market. Enclosed was a summary of current prices for slaves by age, gender, health, and family groups.Box 24 contains a number of small, pocket-size account books of James Minor Holladay (1823-1891). These are labeled sections 124-144. Generally, the books record attendance at work, wages, charges, and some miscellaneous accounts for farm laborers from 1865 to 1887. Section 167 contains an April 1865 general order of the United States Army of the Potomac prescribing appropriate conduct of former slaves and their rights and responsibilities and providing for the establishment of an agent to oversee employment of former slaves, the registration of freedmen, and the restriction on former slaves from removing to urban areas.408. Holladay family papers, 1787-1968. 141 items. Mss1H7185c. Microfilm reel C358.In this related collection is a series of letters, 1813, of Dr. Richmond Lewis to Lewis Holladay concerning the details of medical treatment for Jeffrey, a slave of Holladay. The correspondence is in section 1.409. Holladay family papers, 1804-1938. 1,786 items. Mss1H7185g.Mainly correspondence and accounts of the Holladay family of Prospect Hill, Spotsylvania County. ... Section 7 contains a number of letters written to Eliza Lewis Holladay concerning African Americans, including communications from Ann Elizabeth (Holladay) Poindexter (concerning the enclosed notes of her husband, Dr. William Quarles Poindexter, about the number of slaves he employed in 1850, and the slavery question); Dr. William Quarles Poindexter (concerning his feelings of awkwardness in living in a society with freedmen); and Virginia W. (Minor) Rawlins (concerning the sale of her slave, Moses). Section 12 contains the correspondence, 1854-1904, of Lucy Daniel (Lewis) Holladay of Spotsylvania County. Among her correspondents are Charlotte A. Armstrong (concerning Mrs. Armstrong’s desire for her slaves to migrate to Liberia and her wish to visit Africa) and Margaret Campbell (Miller) Holladay (concerning the behavior of servants after 1865). Section 14 contains the correspondence of Virginia Watson Holladay (1829-1888) of Spotsylvania County. Correspondents include Francis Addison Hill (a school teacher writing about domestic life and a case of arson in 1853); Mary Jane (Boggs) Holladay (concerning John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry [now W. Va.]); and Rebecca Ann (Holladay) Willis (referring to selling slaves in 1859). Ref: Papers of the Virginia Historical Society
MOSES SHEPPARD: 1771 - 1857
Moses Sheppard's earliest recollection of home was a dirt-floor cabin. He once said that he had given away or lost more than he ever expected to possess. His family, loyal to England, lost its property during the Revolutionary War. Moses Sheppard began working as an errand boy for a merchant, John Mitchell. Within a few years he became Mitchell's partner and then succeeded him as the firm's sole proprietor. Like many Quakers, he was active in the abolition movement and an active supporter of the Protective Society of Maryland to Protect Free Negroes; the American Antislavery Society; and the Society of Friends Indian Affairs Committee. Sheppard was influential in stopping legislation that would have banished free African-Americans from Maryland. He left the fortune he had amassed during his lifetime to found the Sheppard Asylum.
Sheppard and Pratt Hospital
Moses Sheppard spent years planning for a new hospital for the mentally ill, studying the designs of the best asylums in the country and the most advanced and humane methods of treatment. Three hundred acres of land on Charles Street and York Road in one of the most picturesque sections of Maryland were acquired for the new institution. Chartered in 1853, the cornerstone for the building was laid in the spring of 1862. The entire complex opened for patients in December of 1892. The Sheppard Asylum was considered the most advanced in the country for its time.
In 1898 a bequest from Enoch Pratt added a substantial endowment to the hospital. The name of the hospital was then changed to Sheppard and Enoch Pratt. [ref:http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/speccol/photos/philanthropy/html/sheppard.htm]